“Let me give you a word of the philosophy of reform. The whole history of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims, have been born of earnest struggle. The conflict has been exciting, agitating, all-absorbing, and for the time being, putting all other tumults to silence. It must do this or it does nothing. If there is no struggle there is no progress.”
—Frederick Douglass, Civil Disobedience Manual
TODAY IN BLACK HISTORY
July 31, 1874 – Patrick Francis Healy becomes president of Georgetown, one of the nation’s leading universities. He is the first person of African ancestry to head a major university in the United States.